Self-healing concrete: a potential smart material to apply for underground construction
- Authors: Viet Huy Le 1, 2 *, Nhan Thi Pham 1, 2, Anh Ngoc Pham 1, Tien Manh Le 3
1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
2 GECS research group, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam
3 THG construction company, Hanoi, Vietnam
- Received: 8th-Dec-2021
- Revised: 20th-Mar-2022
- Accepted: 21st-Apr-2022
- Online: 31st-July-2022
- Section: Civil Engineering
The crack of the concrete in underground constructions is generally difficult to detect and repair and consequently causes structural deterioration. Smart concrete with self-healing ability to autonomously repair micro cracks is a potential smart material to apply for underground constructions with sustainable development proposes. This paper reviews healing materials, the self-healing process, and the mixing method of self-healing concretes using bacteria, mineral admixtures, and fibers. The bacteria such as Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus subtilis can produce a calcareous product for healing exterior cracks through microbial metabolic processes. As micro cracks are formed in the smart concrete, the bacteria spores contact nutrients and water and generate Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). The addition of mineral admixtures based on silica including fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) heals the inner cracks through Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gels ( hydration reaction products. Other minerals such as expansive materials, geo-materials, crystals, and chemical additives change their forms or volumes to close cracks. Fibers including steel, carbon, PVA, PE, and carbon fibers are utilized to develop self-healing concretes based on controlling the crack width. The addition of fibers generates multiple micro-cracks, decreases the crack width, and enhances autogenous crack healing. Besides, healing agents can be easily dispersed into self-healing concretes by using the dry mixing, the wet mixing, or the latter mixing. Hence, all smart concretes with self-healing ability demonstrate potential and suitable characteristics for underground constructions. A combination method of fibers and bacteria or mineral admixtures can be applied for better sealing crack and durability enhancement of underground concrete structures.
Chahal, N., Siddique, R., and Rajor, A. (2012). Influence of bacteria on the compressive strength, water absorption and rapid chloride permeability of fly ash concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 28(1), 351-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.07.042Chandra Sekhara Reddy, T., and Ravitheja, A. (2019). Macro mechanical properties of self healing concrete with crystalline admixture under different environments. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 10(1), 23-32. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.asej.2018.01.005Fan, S., Li, X., and Li, M. (2018). The effects of damage and self-healing on impedance spectroscopy of strain-hardening cementitious materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 106(February), 77-90. https:// doi.org/https://doi.org/10. 1016/j. cemconres.2018.01.016Homma, D., Mihashi, H., and Nishiwaki, T. (2009). Self-healing capability of fibre reinforced cementitious composites. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 7(2), 217-228. https:// doi.org/10.3151/jact.7.217Huang, H., Ye, G., and Shui, Z. (2014). Feasibility of self-healing in cementitious materials - By using capsules or a vascular system? Construction and Building Materials, 63, 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat. 2014.04.028Ivanor, F. M. B. I. P. (1974). Self-healing and durability of hydraulic concrete. Gidrotekhnicheskor Stroitel’stvo, 844-849. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781107358454.003Jonkers, H. M. (2007). Self Healing Concrete: A Biological Approach. Springer Series in Materials Science, 100, 195-204. https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6250-6_9Kan, L. L., and Shi, H. S. (2012). Investigation of self-healing behavior of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) materials. Construction and Building Materials, 29, 348-356. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.10.051Kanellopoulos, A., Qureshi, T. S., and Al-Tabbaa, A. (2015). Glass encapsulated minerals for self-healing in cement based composites. Construction and Building Materials, 98, 780-791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat. 2015.08.127Kumar Jogi, P., and Vara Lakshmi, T. V. S. (2020). Self healing concrete based on different bacteria: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 43(xxxx), 1246-1252. https:// doi.org/10. 1016/j.matpr.2020.08. 765Li, V. C., and Herbert, E. (2012). Robust self-healing concrete for sustainable infrastructure. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 10(6), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.3151/ jact.10.207Manvith Kumar Reddy, C., Ramesh, B., and Macrin, D. (2020). Effect of crystalline admixtures, polymers and fibers on self healing concrete - a review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 33(xxxx), 763-770. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.matpr.2020.06.122Nishiwaki, T., Kwon, S., Homma, D., Yamada, M., and Mihashi, H. (2014). Self-healing capability of fiber-reinforced cementitious composites for recovery of watertightness and mechanical properties. Materials, 7(3), 2141-2154. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7032141Sahmaran, M., Yildirim, G., and Erdem, T. K. (2013). Self-healing capability of cementitious composites incorporating different supplementary cementitious materials. Cement and Concrete Composites, 35(1), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp. 2012.08.013Şahmaran, M., Yildirim, G., Noori, R., Ozbay, E., and Lachemi, M. (2015). Repeatability and Pervasiveness of Self-Healing in Engineered Cementitious Composites. ACI Materials Journal, 112(4). https://doi.org/10.14359 /5168730Van Tittelboom, K., Gruyaert, E., Rahier, H., and De Belie, N. (2012). Influence of mix composition on the extent of autogenous crack healing by continued hydration or calcium carbonate formation. Construction and Building Materials, 37, 349-359. https://doi.org /10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2012.07.026Wang, X., Huang, Y., Huang, Y., Zhang, J., Fang, C., Yu, K., Chen, Q., Li, T., Han, R., Yang, Z., Xu, P., Liang, G., Su, D., Ding, X., Li, D., Han, N., and Xing, F. (2019). Laboratory and field study on the performance of microcapsule-based self-healing concrete in tunnel engineering. Construction and Building Materials, 220, 90-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat. 2019.06.017Xu, J., and Wang, X. (2018). Self-healing of concrete cracks by use of bacteria-containing low alkali cementitious material. Construction and Building Materials, 167, 1-14. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.020Yang, Y., Lepech, M. D., Yang, E. H., and Li, V. C. (2009). Autogenous healing of engineered cementitious composites under wet-dry cycles. Cement and Concrete Research, 39(5), 382-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. cemconres.2009.01.013Yatish Reddy, P. V., Ramesh, B., and Prem Kumar, L. (2020). Influence of bacteria in self healing of concrete - a review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 33(xxxx), 4212-4218. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.07.233Zhang, W., Zheng, Q., Ashour, A., and Han, B. (2020). Self-healing cement concrete composites for resilient infrastructures: A review. Composites Part B: Engineering, 189(June 2019), 107892.