Controls of normal diagenesis on poroperm parameters in red beds: examples in Miocene Muddy Creek Formation, Mesquite basin, USA and upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone, Orcadian basin, Scotland
1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
2 University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
- Received: 20th-Jan-2023
- Revised: 26th-May-2023
- Accepted: 20th-June-2023
- Online: 30th-June-2023
- Section: Oil and Gas
General diagenetic patterns in Miocene Muddy Creek Formation and upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone (ORS) can be characterized as follows: i) early diagenesis characterized by the formation of early hematite, carbonate, and clay cement; ii) burial diagenesis followed by the formation of quartz and feldspar overgrowths, poikilotopic calcite and pore-filling clays; iii) late diagenesis characterized by the formation of late hematite replacing previous poikilotopic carbonate cement. Normal diagenesis has a significant impact on poroperm parameters as indicated by the destruction of pore spaces from cementation and intergranular pressure solution. Early cementation in unburied sandstones of the Muddy Creek Formation reduces sample porosities to 2÷20% of the total rock volume. Cementation destroyed the original porosity of studied sandstones through pore occlusion due to the formation of equant and meniscus calcite cement. Point-count data indicate that the intergranular cement of studied samples ranges between 22 and 44%; in contrast, the intergranular porosities range from 2÷20% of the total rock volume. These consequently indicate that the intergranular volumes that are considered to represent the original porosities of studied samples, ranged from 35÷50% of the total rock volume. Completely pore-occluding poikilotopic calcite cement in the upper Old Red Sandstone reduces poroperm values to as low as 5% porosity and 0.003 mD permeability. Late reddening is caused by replacive hematite cement in the calcite. In addition, normal diagenesis also has an impact on porosity enhancement due to dissolution in the studied red beds. This improves porosity and permeability by as much as 14% and 254 mD in the upper ORS.
Bloch, S.,(1994). Secondary porosity in sandstones: significance, origin, relationship to subaerial unconformities, and effects on predrill reservoir quality prediction. In: Wilson, M. D. (ed.) Reservoir quality assessment and prediction in clastic rocks: SEPM Short Course, 30, 137-159.
Bohannon, R. G., Grow, J. A., Miller, J. J. and Blank, R. H. (1993). Seismic stratigraphy and tectonic development of Virgin River depression and associated basins, southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 105, 501 - 520.
Burley, S. D., Kantorowicz, J. D. and Waugh, B. (1987). Clastic Diagenesis. In: Beaumont E. A. and Foster, N. H. (eds.) Reservoirs II - Sandstones. Treatise of Petroleum Geology Reprint Series No 4, AAPG, 408-445. Paper reprinted from Sedimentology: Recent Development and Applied Aspects, P.J. Brenchley (ed.) 189-220.
Coward, M. P. and Enfield, M. A. (1987). The Structure of the West Orkney and adjacent basins. In: Brooks, J. and Glennie, K. (eds) Petroleum Geology of North West Europe. Graham and Trotman, 687-696.
Coward, M. P., Enfield, M. A. and Fischer, M. W. (1989). Devonian basins of Northern Scotland: extension and inversion related to Late Caledonian - Variscan tectonics. In: Cooper, M. A. and Williams, G. D. (eds) Inversion Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 44, 275-308.
McKeever, P. J. (1992). Petrography and diagenesis of the Permo-Triassic of Scotland. In: Parnell, J. (ed.) Basins on the Atlantic Seaboard: Petroleum Geology, Sedimentology and Basin Evolution. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 62, 71-96.
McQuillin, R., Donato, J. A., and Tulstrup, J. (1982). Development of basins in the Inner Moray Firth and the North Sea by crustal extension and dextral displacement of the Great Glen Fault. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 60, 127 - 139.
Parnell J., Carey P. and Monson B. (1998). Timing and temperature of decollement on hydrocarbon source rock beds in cyclic lacustrine successions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 140, 121-134.
Roberts, A. M., Badley, M. E., Price, J. D. and Huck, I. W. (1990). The structural history of a transtensional basin: Inner Moray Firth, NE Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 147, 87-103.
Wilson, M. D. and Pitman, E. D. (1987). Authigenic clays in sandstone: recognition and influence on reservoir properties and paleoenvironmental analysis. In: Beaumont E. A. and Foster, N. H. (eds.) Reservoirs II - Sandstones. Treatise of Petroleum Geology Reprint Series No 4, AAPG, 463-487. Paper reprinted from Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 47, 3-31, March 1977.
Wilson, M. D. and Stanton, P. T. (1994). Diagenetic mechanisms of porosity and permeability reduction and enhancement. In: Wilson, M. D. (ed.) Reservoir Quality Assessment and Prediction in Clastic Rocks: SEPM Short Course, 30, 59-118.