Effect of pore water chemistry on the ring shear behavior and the rate dependency of residual strength

  • Affiliations:

    1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
    2 Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan
    3 MienTrung University of Civil Engineering, Phu Yen, Vietnam

  • *Corresponding:
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received: 5th-Aug-2023
  • Revised: 18th-Nov-2023
  • Accepted: 29th-Nov-2023
  • Online: 1st-Dec-2023
Pages: 90 - 98
Views: 233
Downloads: 6
Rating: , Total rating: 0
Yours rating


The rate dependency of residual strength plays an important role in the selection of residual strength parameters to design the remediation works for reactivated landslides. In the literature, it is shown that the rate dependency of residual strength depends on some factors such as types of soil, range of shear rates, range of effective normal stresses, and pore water chemistry. Recently, the effect of pore water chemistry on the rate dependency of residual strength soil has been examined. However, the ring shear behavior and the rate dependency of residual strength of soil having different pore fluids should be more evaluated. In this study, the effect of the pore fluids of distilled water and 1 M NaCl on the rate dependency of residual strength of kaolin clay was investigated in the Bishop ring shear apparatus. The ring shear tests were conducted at different shearing rates from 0.02 mm/min to 20 mm/min under the effective normal stress of 98 kPa. The research results showed that the pore fluid chemistry affected the shear displacement required to reach the peak strength, the vertical displacement, and the peak strength of kaolin clay. These parameters also exhibited rate dependency, especially at the fast shear rates. The research also indicated that the pore fluid chemistry had a significant effect on the rate dependency of residual strength. Accordingly, the rate dependency of residual strength of kaolin mixed with distilled water showed a positive tendency while that of kaolin with 1 M NaCl as the pore fluid was the neutral tendency.

How to Cite
Nguyen, D.Thanh, Suzuki, M., Nguyen, H.Van and Nguyen, N.Thi 2023. Effect of pore water chemistry on the ring shear behavior and the rate dependency of residual strength. Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences. 64, 6 (Dec, 2023), 90-98. DOI:https://doi.org/10.46326/JMES.2023.64(6).10.

Bishop, A.W., Green, G.E., Garga, V.K., Andresen, A., Brown, J.D. (1971). A new ring shear apparatus and its application to the measurement of residual strength. Geotechnique 21, 273–328.

Duong, N.T., Ha, P.T.N., Huong, T.T.L. (2020). Residual shear strength of soil: affecting factors and application. ERSD 2020, 14–19 (In Vietnamese).

Duong, N.T., Hai, N.V. (2021a). Residual Strength of Weakly Cemented Kaolin Clay in Multi‑stage Ring Shear Test. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 2021.

Duong, N.T., Hai, N.V. (2021b). Brittleness index of lightly cemented soil in ring shear tests. Journal of Construction, 279–282.

Duong, N.T, Hao, D.V. (2020). Consolidation Characteristics of Artificially Structured Kaolin-Bentonite Mixtures with Different Pore Fluids. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2020, 1-9.

Duong, N.T., Suzuki, M. (2022). Rate Effects on Peak and Residual Strengths of Overconsolidated Clay in Ring Shear Tests. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering 66, 298–309.

Duong, N.T., Suzuki, M. (2020). Rate Effect on the Residual Interface Strength Between two Different Soil Layers. In Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development. Springer, 985–992.

Duong, N.T., Suzuki, M., Van Hai, N. (2018). Rate and acceleration effects on residual strength of kaolin and kaolin–bentonite mixtures in ring shearing. Soils and foundations 58, 1153–1172.

Gratchev, I.B., Sassa, K. (2015). Shear strength of clay at different shear rates. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 141, 06015002.

Horpibulsuk, S., Yangsukkaseam, N., Chinkulkijniwat, A., Du, Y.J. (2011). Compressibility and permeability of Bangkok clay compared with kaolinite and bentonite. Applied Clay Science 52, 150–159.

Kimura, S., Nakamura, S., Vithana, S.B., Sakai, K. (2014). Shearing rate effect on residual strength of landslide soils in the slow rate range. Landslides 11, 969–979.

Li, Y.R., Aydin, A. (2013). Shear zone structures and stress fluctuations in large ring shear tests. Engineering Geology 167, 6–13.

Lian, B., Peng, J., Wang, X., Huang, Q. (2018). Influence of shearing rate on the residual strength characteristic of three landslides soils in loess area. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1–24.

Ma, J., Zhao, X., Li, S., Duan, Z. (2021). Effects of high shearing rates on the shear behavior of saturated loess using ring shear tests. Geofluids 2021.

Scaringi, G., Di Maio, C. (2016). Influence of displacement rate on residual shear strength of clays. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 16, 137–145.

Skempton, A.W. (1985). Residual strength of clays in landslides, folded strata and the laboratory. Geotechnique 35, 3–18.

Stark, T.D., Eid, H.T. (1993). Modified Bromhead ring shear apparatus. Geotechnical Testing Journal 16, 100–107.

Stark, T.D., Vettel, J.J. (1992). Bromhead ring shear test procedure. Geotechnical Testing Journal 15, 24–32.

Suzuki, M., Tsuzuki, S., Yamamoto, T. (2007). Residual strength characteristics of naturally and artificially cemented clays in reversal direct box shear test. Soils and Foundations 47, 1029–1044.

Suzuki, M., Van Hai, N., Yamamoto, T., (2017). Ring shear characteristics of discontinuous plane. Soils and Foundations 57, 1–22.

Tika, T.E., Vaughan, P.R., Lemos, L. (1996). Fast shearing of pre-existing shear zones in soil. Geotechnique 46, 197–233.

Tiwari, B., Marui, H. (2003). Estimation of residual shear strength for bentonite-kaolin-Toyoura sand mixture. Journal of the Japan Landslide Society 40, 124–133.

Tiwari, B., Padgett, J., Ajmera, B., Bieda, A. 2020. Effect of Mineralogical Composition and Pore Water Chemistry on Shearing Rate Dependent Residual Shear Strength of Soil. In Geo-Congress 2020: Modeling, Geomaterials, and Site Characterization. American Society of Civil Engineers Reston, VA, 332–340.

Townsend, F.C., Gilbert, P.A. (1976). Effects of specimen type on the residual strength of clays and clay shales. In Soil Specimen Preparation for Laboratory Testing. ASTM International.

Wang, L., Han, J., Liu, S., Yin, X. (2020). Variation in Shearing Rate Effect on Residual Strength of Slip Zone Soils Due to Test Conditions. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 1–13.

Wang, Y., Cong, L. (2019). Effects of water content and shearing rate on residual shear stress. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 44, 8915–8929.

Xu, C., Wang, X., Lu, X., Dai, F., Jiao, S. (2018). Experimental study of residual strength and the index of shear strength characteristics of clay soil. Engineering Geology 233, 183–190.

Yao, C., Chen, P., Ma, T., Xia, X., Wei, C. (2020). Physicochemical effect on shear strength characteristics of clayey soils based on ring-shear experiment. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 57, 1820–1831.