Diagenesis and the effects of cataclastic deformation on the Permo-Triassic New Red Sandstone, Isle of Arran, Scotland
1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
2 University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK
- Received: 5th-Aug-2022
- Revised: 6th-Nov-2022
- Accepted: 9th-Dec-2022
- Online: 1st-Feb-2023
- Section: Oil and Gas
Diagenesis in the Permo-Triassic New Red Sandstone, Isle of Arran is characterized by early cementation of hematite, clay, and calcite minerals, followed by burial compaction, quartz, feldspar, and pyrite cementation. Cataclasis post-dated the quartz and feldspar cementation and reduced the grain and pore aperture size in deformed samples. Samples with cataclastic bands typically have 18% porosity and 8.81 mD permeability on average. Whereas, undeformed samples have an average porosity of 22% and an average permeability of 381 mD. Cataclasis was not as important as diagenesis in controlling sandstone porosity and permeability. However, cataclasis resulted in lower porosity and very poor to medium permeability in deformed samples. Cataclastic bands compartmentalize reservoir sands and cause a high heterogeneity in undeformed porous sandstones. Poikilotopic and blocky calcite cement postdates early clay and hematite cement. In addition, burial quartz and feldspar overgrowths also postdate the early clay and hematite. However, the poikilotopic calcite fills in framework grains that have larger void volumes than the grain/grain contacts where quartz overgrowths are present. Cataclasis resulted in fracturing of quartz and feldspar overgrowths. Therefore, the cataclasis occurred after the development of quartz and feldspar cementation. Dissolution postdated the formation of authigenic feldspar and pyrite formation resulted from hematite reduction. The distributions of grain and pore sizes against cumulative mercury volumes in studied samples shows a high level of reduction of grain and pore aperture sizes for deformed samples from single-cataclastic and multi-cataclastic bands. The distribution of apex volumes illustrates that the effective mercury porosity of the multi-cataclastic band sample may be reduced up to > 2 times in comparison to undeformed samples. However, the sample of a thin single cataclastic band has only a slightly lower apex volume in comparison to the host sample.
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