Diagenesis and the effects of cataclastic deformation on the Permo-Triassic New Red Sandstone, Isle of Arran, Scotland
- Authors: Tuan Van Pham 1*, John Parnell 2
1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
2 University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK
- Keywords: Cataclasis, Defoformation, Diagenesis, New Red Sandstone.
- Received: 5th-Aug-2022
- Revised: 6th-Nov-2022
- Accepted: 9th-Dec-2022
- Online: 1st-Feb-2023
- Section: Oil and Gas
Diagenesis in the Permo-Triassic New Red Sandstone, Isle of Arran is characterized by early cementation of hematite, clay, and calcite minerals, followed by burial compaction, quartz, feldspar, and pyrite cementation. Cataclasis post-dated the quartz and feldspar cementation and reduced the grain and pore aperture size in deformed samples. Samples with cataclastic bands typically have 18% porosity and 8.81 mD permeability on average. Whereas, undeformed samples have an average porosity of 22% and an average permeability of 381 mD. Cataclasis was not as important as diagenesis in controlling sandstone porosity and permeability. However, cataclasis resulted in lower porosity and very poor to medium permeability in deformed samples. Cataclastic bands compartmentalize reservoir sands and cause a high heterogeneity in undeformed porous sandstones. Poikilotopic and blocky calcite cement postdates early clay and hematite cement. In addition, burial quartz and feldspar overgrowths also postdate the early clay and hematite. However, the poikilotopic calcite fills in framework grains that have larger void volumes than the grain/grain contacts where quartz overgrowths are present. Cataclasis resulted in fracturing of quartz and feldspar overgrowths. Therefore, the cataclasis occurred after the development of quartz and feldspar cementation. Dissolution postdated the formation of authigenic feldspar and pyrite formation resulted from hematite reduction. The distributions of grain and pore sizes against cumulative mercury volumes in studied samples shows a high level of reduction of grain and pore aperture sizes for deformed samples from single-cataclastic and multi-cataclastic bands. The distribution of apex volumes illustrates that the effective mercury porosity of the multi-cataclastic band sample may be reduced up to > 2 times in comparison to undeformed samples. However, the sample of a thin single cataclastic band has only a slightly lower apex volume in comparison to the host sample.
Astin, T. R., and MacDonald, D. I. M. (1983). Syn-depositional faulting and valley-fill breccias in the Permo-Triassic of Arran. Scottish Journal of Geology, 19, 47-58.
Barrett, B. H. (1925). The Permian breccia of Arran. Transactions, Geological Society of Glasgow, 17, 264-270.
Bjørlykke, K.,and Egeber, P. K. (1993). Quartz cementation in sedimentary basins. AAPG Bulletin, 77, 1538-1548.
Burley, S. D. (1984). Patterns of diagenesis in the Sherwood sandstone group (Triassic), United Kingdom. Clay Mineral, 19, 403-440.
Clemmensen, L. B., and Abrahamsen, K. (1983). Aeolian stratification and facies association in desert sediments, Arran basin (Permian), Scotland. Sedimentology, 30, 311-399.
Dickin, A. P., Moorbath, S.,and Welke, H. J. (1981). Isotope, trace element and major element geochemistry of Tertiary igneous rocks, Isle of Arran, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 72, 159-170.
Evans, A. L., Fitch, F. J.,and Miller, J. A. (1973). Pottasium-agon age determinations on some British Tertiary igneous rocks. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 129, 419-443.
Folk, R. L. (1974). Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill, Austin, 182p.
Friend, P. F., Harland, W. B.,and Hudson, J. D. (1963). The Old Red Sandstone and the Highland Boundary in Arran, Scotland. Transactions, Edinburgh Geological Society, 19, 363-425.
Glennie, K. W. (2002). Permian and Triassic. In: Trewin, N. (eds.). The geology of Scotland – 4th edition. Geological Society, London, 301-321.
Graham, D.,and Midgley, N. (2000). Triangular diagram plotting spreadsheet (TRI-PLOT). http://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/phys-geog/tri-plot/index.html. Department of Geography, Loughborough University.
Gregory, J. W. (1915). The Permian and Triassic rocks of Arran. Transactions, the Geological Society of Glasgow, 15, 174-187.
Harland, W. B.,and Hacker, I. F. (1966). Fossil lightning strikes 250 million years old. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 22, 663-71.
Heald, M. T., and Larese, R. E. (1974). Influence of coatings on quartz cementation. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 44, 1269-1274.
Houseknecht, D. (1987). Assessing the relative importance of compaction processes and cementation to reduction of porosity in sandstones. AAPG Bulletin, 71, 633-642.
Lovell, J. P. B. (1971). Petrography and correlation of sandstones in the New Red Sandstone (Permo-Triassic) of Arran. Scottish Journal of Geology, 7, 162-169.
McKeever, P. J. (1992). Petrography and diagenesis of the Permo-Triassic of Scotland. In: Parnell, J. (eds.). Basins on the Atlantic Seaboard: Petroleum Geology, Sedimentology and Basin Evolution. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 62, 71-96.
McLean, A. C. (1978). Evolution of fault-controlled ensialic basin in northwestern Britain. In: Bowes, D. R. and Leake, B. E. (eds.). Crustal evolution in northwestern Britain and adjacent regions. Seel House Press, 325-346.
McLean, A. C.,and Deegan, C. E. (1978). A synthesis of the solid geology of the Clyde region. Institute of Geological Sciences Report, 78(9), 93-114.
Mundy, D., and Evoy, R. (1997). A synopsis of the Old Red Sandstone reservoir in the 21/1A-8 well, Buchan field, U.K.C.S. Talisman Petroleum Company, UK. Internal Report. Aberdeen, March, 1997.
Pham, T. V. (2007). Controls of Diagenesis and Structural Deformation on Reservoir Quality in Red Beds. PhD Thesis in Geology and Petroleum Geology, University of Aberdeen, 260p.
Shelton, R. G. (1996). Basin evolution in the North Channel Region. PhD thesis, Queen’s University of Belfast, Ireland.
Storvoll, V., Bjørlykke, K., Karlsen, D.,and Saigal, G. (2002). Porosity preservation in reservoir sandstones due to grain-coating illite: a study of the Jurassic Garn Formation from the Kristin and Lavrans fields, offshore Mid-Norway. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 767-781.
Tyrrell, G. W. (1928). The geology of Arran. Mem. Geol. Surv. U.K.
Underhill, J. R., and Woodcock, N. H. (1987). Faulting mechanisms in high-porosity sandstones: New Red Sandstone, Arran, Scotland. In: Jones, M.E. and Preston, R.M.F. (eds.). Deformation of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 29, 91-105.
Walker, T. R. (1967). Formation of Red Beds in Modern and Ancient Deserts. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 78, 353-368.
Walker, T. R., Waugh, B.,and Grone, A. J. (1978). Diagenesis in first-cycle desert alluvium of Cenozoic age, southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 89, 19-32.
Woodcock, N. H.,and Underhill, J. R. (1987). Emplacement-related fault patterns around the Northern Granite, Arran, Scotland. Bulletin of Geological Society of America, 98, 515-527.
Worden, R. H.,and Morad, S. (2000). Quartz cementation in oil field sandstones: a review of the key controversies. In: Worden, R. H. and Morad, S. (eds.). Quartz Cementation in Sandstones. International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publications, 29, 1-20.
Worden, R. H.,and Morad, S. (2003). Clay minerals in sandstones: controls on formation, distribution and evolution. In: Worden, R. H. and Morad, S. (eds.). Clay Mineral Cements in Sandstones. International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publications, 34, 3-41.