Studies on lithofacies sequences in the Hoanh Bo basin, Quang Ninh province by using Markov chain model and Entropy function

  • Affiliations:

    1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
    2 Phuong Dong University, Hanoi, Vietnam

  • *Corresponding:
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received: 18th-Sept-2021
  • Revised: 29th-Dec-2021
  • Accepted: 11st-Jan-2022
  • Online: 28th-Feb-2022
Pages: 15 - 26
Views: 4696
Downloads: 3110
Rating: 4.9, Total rating: 339
Yours rating

Abstract:

The succession of lithofacies in the Dong Ho and Tieu Giao formation's Hoanh Bo basin was statistically analyzed using the modified Markov chain model and the function of Entropy. Based on the field definitions, petrographic investigation, and their borehole logs, the lithofacies study was carried out to determine the sediment deposition system and the deposition environment. Seventeen sub - lithofacies organized within the succession are recognized in three lithofacies associations. The analysis result of the Markov chain and chi-square or X2 test indicates that the deposition of the lithofacies is a non - markovian process and represents cyclic deposition of asymmetric fining - upward. To evaluate the randomness of the occurrence of lithofacies in a succession, entropy analysis was performed. Each state is associated with two types of entropy; one is relevant to the Markov matrix expressing upward transitions (entropy after deposition) and the other is relevant to the downward transition matrix (entropy before deposition). The energy regime calculated from the maximum randomness entropy analysis indicates that changing patterns in a deposition has resulted from rapid to steady flow. This results in a change in the depositional pattern from alluvial - fluvial to lacustrine environments, specifically from conglomerate facies (A1) → sandstone facies (A2)→ fine-grained and non - debris facies (A3).

How to Cite
Khuong, H.The and Lai, T.Thuy Thi 2022. Studies on lithofacies sequences in the Hoanh Bo basin, Quang Ninh province by using Markov chain model and Entropy function (in Vietnamese). Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences. 63, 1 (Feb, 2022), 15-26. DOI:https://doi.org/10.46326/JMES.2022.63(1).02.
References

C Cao, W., Zhou, A., and Shen, S. L. (2022). An analytical method for estimating horizontal transition probability matrix of coupled Markov chain for simulating geological uncertainty. Computers and Geotechnics, 29, 103-147.

Dang, T.H. (eds.), (2007). Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic sediments in Northeastern Vietnam. Vietnam Institue of Geoscience and Mineral resources, 413 p. (in Vietnamese)

Doktor, M., Krawczyk, A., and Mastej, W. (2010). Testing the randomness of lithostratigraphic successions with the markov chain methods. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 80, 163-166.

Dovjikov, A.E. (eds.). (1965). Geology of North Vietnam. Hanoi: Science and Technology Publishing House; 1965. 650 p. (in Russian)

Duff, P., McL. D., Hallam, A., and Walton, E.K. (1967). Cyclic sedimentation. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Duong, T.P. (1960). Prospecting around Dong Ho oil stone mine in Hoanh Bo district, Quang Yen province, scale 1:25,000. Department of Geology and Mineral Resources, 23 pp. (in Vietnamese)

Hoang, V.T., Wysocka, A., Phan, D.P., Nguyen, Q.C., and Ziółkowski, P. (2015). Lithofacies and depositional environments of the Paleogene/Neogene sediments in the Hoanh Bo Basin (Quang Ninh province, NE Vietnam). Geology, Geophysics and Environment, 41(4).

Hattori, I. (1976). Entropy in Markov chain and discrimination of cyclic pattern in lithologic successions. Mathematical Geology, 8(4), 477-497.

Hota, R.N., and Maejima, W. (2004). Comparative study of cyclicity of lithofacies in Lower Gondwana formations of Talchir basin, Orissa, India: A statistical analysis of subsurface logs. Gondwana Research, 7, 353-362.

Khan, Z.A., and Tewari, R.C. (2013). Geo-statistical analysis of the Barakar cyclothems (Early Permian): A case study from the subsurface logs in Singrauli Gondwana Sub - basin of Central India. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 3, 1-22.

Krumbein, W.C. (1967). Fortran IV computer programs for Markov chain experiments in geology. Kansas Geological Survey, Computer Contributions, 13, 1-38.

Le, H. (eds.). (1996). Report on the mapping of geological and mineral resources at a scale of 1:50,000 of Cam Pha sheet group, Quang Ninh. Vietnam Institue of Geoscience and Mineral resources. (in Vietnamese) 

Le, T. V. (2003). Structural and geodynamic characteristics of Cenozoic basins in northern Vietnam. Ph.D. Thesis, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, 152 pp. (in Vietnamese)

Miall, A.D. (1973). Markov chain analysis applied to an ancient alluvial plain succession. Sedimentology,20, 347-364.

Nguyen, D.T. (2004). Research on neotectonic movements of the Chi Linh – Dong Trieu fault zone. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 587 - 597. (in Vietnamese)

Pham, Q.T., Do, B., Nguyen, Q.A., Dang, V.K., Do, V.H. (1999). New document about paleopalynology in the Dong Ho formation. Petrovietnam Journal, 3, 2-8. (in Vietnamese)

Pham, V.Q. (eds.), (1969). The age of the coal-bearing deposits Hon Gai and the development of regional geology in Mesozoic. Journal of Geology, 13-39. (in Vietnamese)

Potter, P.E., and Blakely, R.F. (1968). Random  process and lithological transitions. Journalof Geology, 76, 154-170

Schwarzacher, W. (1969). The use of Markov chains in the study of sedimentary cycles. Journal Mathematical Geology, 1, 17-39.

Soto, M. B., Durán, E. L., and Aldana, M. (2014). Stratigraphic Columns Modeling and Cyclicity Analysis of the Misoa Formation, Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela, using Markov Chains. Geofísica Internacional, 53(3), 277-288.

Tewari, R.C, Singh, D.P., and Khan, Z.A. (2009). Application of Markov chain and Entropy analysis to lithologic succession - an example from early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Earth System Science, 18, 583-596.

Tong, D.T., and Vu, K. (eds.), (2005). Stratigraphy of Vietnam. Science and Technology Information Center, Hanoi. (in Vietnamese) 

Tran, D.N., Trinh, D. (1975). The new discoveries about the biostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments in the east of Bac Bo. [in:] Nhan T.D. and Danh T. (eds.), Stratigraphic Works. Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi, 244–283. (in Vietnamese) 

Tran, D.L., Nguyen, X.B. (1988). Geological mapping of Vietnam at 1:500,000 scale. Department of Geology and Mineral Resources. (in Vietnamese) 

Tran, V. T., Vu, K. (eds.), (2009). Geology and Natural Resources of Vietnam. Natural Science and Technics Publishing House, Hanoi, 589 pp. (in Vietnamese)

Vistelius, A.B., and Faas, A.V. (1965). Variation in thickness of strata in the south Urat Paleozoic flysch section.Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 164, 77-79.

Vistelius, A.B., and Feygelson, T.S. (1965). Theory of formation of sedimentary beds. Doklady Akad Nauk USSR,164(1), 158-160.

Vu, V.C. (2002). Features of neo-tectonic faults in Northeastern Vietnam. Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Geological Sciences - Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), Hanoi, 209 pp. (in Vietnamese)