Study on factors affecting the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by solution plasma method

  • Affiliations:

    1 Institute of Chemistry and Material, Hanoi, Vietnam
    2 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

  • *Corresponding:
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received: 5th-Mar-2022
  • Revised: 12th-June-2022
  • Accepted: 12th-July-2022
  • Online: 31st-Dec-2022
Pages: 53 - 60
Views: 1339
Downloads: 19
Rating: , Total rating: 0
Yours rating


The solution plasma process (SPP) is a revolutionary approach for production of nanomaterials employing plasma discharge in liquid. The SPP can quickly deionize metal into the neutral state in the absence of a reducing agent. Selenium nanoparticles are created in solution plasma in this investigation. The approach is capable of producing selenium nanoparticles with uniform size in water and great stability without the use of a stabilizer. UV-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV-vis), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering Particle Size Analyzer (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) techniques are used to analyze the produced selenium nanoparticles. In an ethanol/water mixture, the better solvent compares to distilled water, the SeNPs forms uniform flower-like nanostructures with diameters ranging from 50÷70 nm. Also, the effects of other parameters such as voltage, electrode spacing and reaction time on the production of nano selenium are investigated. The findings show that solution plasma can help form selenium nano particle in a very short time which is about 60 minutes. In addition, the electrodes must be separated by a minimum distance which is 0.5 mm . The ideal voltage to achieve a highly efficient process is 2 kV The higher voltage cause the reaction solution boil leading to the loss of reactants while the lower value cannot ignite the reaction. The reaction efficiency reaches 100% when applied those conditions. Also, those parameters help to shorten the reaction time which is an advantage of the synthesis method. As a result, the solution plasma method of synthesising nanoselenium makes it extremely promising for use in biomedical applications.

How to Cite
Le, T.Huu, Ngo, S.Ha, Tran, T.Ngoc and Nguyen, H.Tran 2022. Study on factors affecting the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by solution plasma method. Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences. 63, 6 (Dec, 2022), 53-60. DOI:

Anu, K., Devanesan, S., Prasanth, R., AlSalhi, M. S., Ajithkumar, S., and Singaravelu, G. (2020). Biogenesis of selenium nanoparticles and their anti-leukemia activity. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 32(4), 2520-2526.

Beheshti, N., Soflaei, S., Shakibaie, M., Yazdi, M. H., Ghaffarifar, F., Dalimi, A., and Shahverdi, A. R. (2013). Efficacy of biogenic selenium nanoparticles against Leishmania major: In vitro and in vivo studies. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 27(3), 203-207.

Buxton, G. V., Greenstock, C. L., Helman, W. P., and Ross, A. B. (1988). Critical Review of rate constants for reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals (⋅OH/⋅O−) in Aqueous Solution. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 17(2), 513-886.

Forootanfar, H., Adeli-Sardou, M., Nikkhoo, M., Mehrabani, M., Amir-Heidari, B., Shahverdi, A. R., and Shakibaie, M. (2014). Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles in comparison to selenium dioxide. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 28(1), 75-79.

Gao, X., Zhang, J., and Zhang, L.,(2002). Hollow Sphere Selenium Nanoparticles: Their In-Vitro Anti Hydroxyl Radical Effect. Advanced Materials, 14(4), 290-293.

Gupta, S., and Singh, R.,(2016). Introduction to Nanotechnology.Oxford University Press.

Hariharan, H. B.N., Karuppiah, P., and Rajaram, S. K. (2012). Microbial synthesis of selinium nanocomposite using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its antimicrobial activity against pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Chalcogenide Letters, 9, 509-515.

Hariharan, S., and Dharmaraj, S. (2020). Selenium and selenoproteins: It’s role in regulation of inflammation. Inflammopharmacology, 28(3), 667-695.

Hassanin, K. M., El-Kawi, S. H. A., and Hashem, K. S. (2013). The prospective protective effect of selenium nanoparticles against chromium-induced oxidative and cellular damage in rat

thyroid. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8, 1713-1720.

Kim, S.M., Cho, A.R., and Lee, S.Y. (2015). Characterization and electrocatalytic activity of Pt-M (M=Cu, Ag and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma discharge in water. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 17(7), 284.

Kojouri, G. A., and Sharifi, S. (2013). Preventing Effects of Nano-Selenium Particles on Serum Concentration of Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine and Total Protein During Intense Exercise in Donkey. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 33(8), 597-600.

Mellinas, C., Jiménez, A., and Garrigós, M. del C. (2019). Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles Using Theobroma cacao L. Bean Shell Extract. Molecules, 24(22), 4048.

Prasad, K. S., and Selvaraj, K. (2014). Biogenic Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles and Their Effect on As(III)-Induced Toxicity on Human Lymphocytes. Biological Trace Element Research, 157(3), 275-283.

Sadeghian, S., Kojouri, G. A., and Mohebbi, A. (2012). Nanoparticles of Selenium as Species with Stronger Physiological Effects in Sheep in Comparison with Sodium Selenite. Biological Trace Element Research, 146(3), 302-308.

Shi, L., Xun, W., Yue, W., Zhang, C., Ren, Y., Shi, L., Wang, Q., Yang, R., and Lei, F. (2011). Effect of sodium selenite, Se-yeast and nano-elemental selenium on growth performance, Se concentration and antioxidant status in growing male goats. Small Ruminant Research, 96(1), 49-52.

Sudare, T., Ueno, T., Watthanaphanit, A., and Saito, N. (2015). Verification of Radicals Formation in Ethanol-Water Mixture Based Solution Plasma and Their Relation to the Rate of Reaction. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(48), 11668-11673.

Torres, S. K., Campos, V. L., León, C. G., Rodríguez-Llamazares, S. M., Rojas, S. M., González, M., Smith, C., and Mondaca, M.A. (2012). Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Pantoea agglomerans and their antioxidant activity. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14(11), 1236.

Trabelsi, H., Azzouz, I., Ferchichi, S., Tebourbi, O., Sakly, M., and Abdelmelek, H. (2013). Nanotoxicological evaluation of oxidative responses in rat nephrocytes induced by cadmium. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8, 3447-3453.

Tran, P. A., O’Brien-Simpson, N., Reynolds, E. C., Pantarat, N., Biswas, D. P., and O’Connor, A. J. (2016). Low cytotoxic trace element selenium nanoparticles and their differential antimicrobial properties against S. aureus and E. coli. Nanotechnology, 27(4), 045101.

Vahdati, M., and Tohidi Moghadam, T. (2020). Synthesis and Characterization of Selenium Nanoparticles-Lysozyme Nanohybrid System with Synergistic Antibacterial Properties. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-10.

Wang, H., Zhang, J., and Yu, H. (2007). Elemental selenium at nano size possesses lower toxicity without compromising the fundamental effect on selenoenzymes: Comparison with selenomethionine in mice. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 42(10), 1524-1533.

Yu, B., Zhang, Y., Zheng, W., Fan, C., and Chen, T. (2012). Positive Surface Charge Enhances Selective Cellular Uptake and Anticancer Efficacy of Selenium Nanoparticles. Inorganic Chemistry, 51(16), 8956-8963.

Yu, S., Zhang, W., Liu, W., Zhu, W., Guo, R., Wang, Y., Zhang, D., and Wang, J. (2015). The inhibitory effect of selenium nanoparticles on protein glycation in vitro. Nanotechnology, 26(14), 145703.

Zhang, J., Wang, X., and Xu, T.,(2008). Elemental Selenium at Nano Size (Nano-Se) as a Potential Chemopreventive Agent with Reduced Risk of Selenium Toxicity: Comparison with Se-Methylselenocysteine in Mice. Toxicological Sciences, 101(1), 22-31.

Zhang, J., Hu, X., Yang, B., Su, N., Huang, H., Cheng, J., Yang, H., and Saito, N. (2017). Novel synthesis of PtPd nanoparticles with good electrocatalytic activity and durability. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 709, 588-595.