Soil nailing as a ground reinforcement method of a storey building constructed on weathered siltstone: Analytical and numerical evaluation

  • Affiliations:

    1 Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam
    2 Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw Poland
    3 Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Nigeria
    4 Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

  • *Corresponding:
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received: 19th-Nov-2023
  • Revised: 2nd-Mar-2024
  • Accepted: 28th-Mar-2024
  • Online: 1st-Apr-2024
Pages: 10 - 21
Views: 251
Downloads: 7
Rating: , Total rating: 0
Yours rating


Vietnam is located in a strong earthquake zone with many areas having a ground acceleration (ag) of greater than 0.08 g (TCVN 9386:2012). According to Vietnamese standard TCVN 9386:2012, the calculation and design of construction grade III or higher in areas where have ground acceleration ag ≥ 0.08 g must include seismic design. In calculations of earthquake-resistant pile foundation, the bearing capacity of the pile including the tip resistance strength (qb) and endurance strength (fi) need to be multiplied by attenuation coefficients (geq1 and geq2). They are the most important parameters and depend on the soil types, saturation conditions, and earthquake intensity. The article introduces a method to determine the attenuation coefficients according to the standard TCVN 10304:2014. In addition, analyzing the theoretical basis to give the expression to determine attenuation coefficients based on the durability factor (Ired) and pore water pressure ratio (Ru) of saturated sand under the earthquakes. Furthermore, the paper presents a method to determine Ru from the results of standard penetration test (SPT) by combining the method of Seed and Alba (1986) with the method of Marcuson and Hynes (1990). In which, Seed and Alba's method was used to determine factor of safety against liquefaction (FSL), and then Marcuson and Hynes' method was used to determine Ru from FSL. The application in Nhon Hoi Economic Zone shows that: The silty fine grained sand, which is medium dense and saturated, has a attenuation coefficient of tip resistance geq1 = 0.74÷0.76 and attenuation coefficient of friction geq2 = 0.90; The fine grained sand, which is dense and saturated, has geq1 = 0.79÷0.82 and geq2 = 0.94. 

How to Cite
Bui, D.Van, Nguyen, M.Van, Pham, N.Thi, Osinski, P., Onyelowe, K.Chibuzor, Nguyen, T.Dang and Yubonchit, S. 2024. Soil nailing as a ground reinforcement method of a storey building constructed on weathered siltstone: Analytical and numerical evaluation. Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences. 65, 2 (Apr, 2024), 10-21. DOI:

Cheng, Y. M., Lansivaara, T., and Wei, W. B., (2007). Two-dimensional slope stability analysis by limit equilibrium and strength reduction methods. Computers and Geotechnics, 34(3), 137–150.

GEO., (2008). Guide to Soil Nail Design and Construction (Geoguide 7). Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development.

Hoek, E., and Diederichs, M. S., (2006). Empirical estimation of rock mass modulus. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 43(2), 203–215.

Hou, J., Zhang, M., Dai, Z., Li, J., and Zeng, F., (2017). Bearing capacity of strip foundations in horizontal-vertical reinforced soils. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 45(1), 29–34.

Jewell, R. A., and Pedley, M. J., (1992). Analysis for soil reinforcement with bending stiffness. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 118(10), 1505–1528.

Lazarte, C. A., Robinson, H., Gómez, J. E., Baxter, A., Cadden, A., and Berg, R., (2015). Soil nail walls reference manual.

Małkowski, P., Ostrowski, Ł., and Brodny, J., (2018). Analysis of Young’s modulus for Carboniferous sedimentary rocks and its relationship with uniaxial compressive strength using different methods of modulus determination. Journal of Sustainable Mining, 17(3), 145–157.

Muqtadir, A., and Desai, C. S., (1986). Three‐dimensional analysis of a pile‐group foundation. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 10(1), 41–58.

Phear, A., Dew, C., Ozsoy, B., Wharmby, N. J., Judge, J., and Barley, A. D., (2005). Soil nailing-best practice guidance (Issue C637).

Potgieter, J. T., and Jacobsz, S. W. (2019). Comparing the factors of safety from finite element and limit equilibrium analyses in lateral support design. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 61(4), 29–41.

Pressley, J. S., and Poulos, H. G., (1986). Finite element analysis of mechanisms of pile group behaviour. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 10(2), 213–221.

Sharma, M., Samanta, M., and Sarkar, S., (2019). Soil nailing: An effective slope stabilization technique. In Landslides: Theory, practice and modelling (pp. 173–199). Springer.

Shiu, Y. K., and Chang, G. W. K., (2006). Effects of inclination, length pattern and bending stiffness of soil nails on behaviour of nailed structures. Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department.

Sivakugan, N., Das, B. M., Lovisa, J., and Patra, C. R., (2014). Determination of c and φ of rocks from indirect tensile strength and uniaxial compression tests. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 8(1), 59–65.

Sivakumar Babu, G. L., and Singh, V. P., (2011). Reliability-based load and resistance factors for soil-nail walls. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48(6), 915–930.

Su, L.-J., Yin, J.-H., and Zhou, W.-H., (2010). Influences of overburden pressure and soil dilation on soil nail pull-out resistance. Computers and Geotechnics, 37(4), 555–564.